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2020屆高三一輪復習英語——名詞性從句

2019-08-22 14:37:43 來源:啟達教育網

在高考英語復習中,什么是名詞性從句?名詞性從句是在句子中起名詞作用的句子。名詞性從句的功能相當于名詞詞組, 它在復合句中能擔任主語、賓語、表語、同位語、介詞賓語等,因此根據它在句中不同的語法功能,名詞性從句又可分別稱為主語從句、賓語從句、表語從句和同位語從句。啟達教育老師為你整理了2020屆高三一輪復習英語——名詞性從句,希望能夠對你有所幫助!

引導名詞性從句的連接詞可分為三類:

連接詞:that, whether, if (不充當從句的任何成分)

連接代詞:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which

連接副詞:when, where, how, why

不可省略的連詞:

1. 介詞后的連詞

2. 引導主語從句和同位語從句的連詞不可省略

That she was chosen made us very happy.

We heard the news that our team had won.

【比較】whether與if均為“是否”的意思。但在下列情況下,whether不能被if取代:

1. whether引導主語從句并在句首

2. 引導表語從句

3. whether從句作介詞賓語

4. 從句后有"or not",例:Whether he will come or not is not clear.

大部分連接詞引導的主語從句都可以置于句末,用it充當形式主語:

It is not important who will go.

It is still unknown which team will win the match.

01 主語從句

用來作主語的句子叫做主語從句。如:

(1)When he was born is unknown. 他生于何時還不知道。

(2)What he did last night is being investigated. 他昨天晚上干了些什么正在調查之中。

主語從句通常由連詞thatwhether、連接代詞或連接副詞以及關系代詞型what引導。

1. that引導

That we shall be late is certain.

我們要晚了,這是確定無疑的。

That he should have ignored the working class was natural.

他忽視工人階級是很自然的。

That you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time.

你將來倫敦是好久以來我聽到的最好消息。

That she was chosen made a tremendous stir in her village.

她被挑選上,在她村 子里引起很大轟動。

2. whether引導

Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen.

是否對我們有害還要看一看。

Whether they would support us was a problem.

他們是否會支持我們還是一個問題。

3. 連接代詞引導

Whoever is top from wins the game when two matched players meet.

兩強相爭勇者勝。

Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize.

無論(你們)誰先到都可以得獎。

Whichever you want is yours.

你要哪個哪個就是你的。

4. 連接副詞引導

When we arrive doesn’t matter.

什么時候到沒有關系。

How it was done was a mystery.

這是怎樣做的是一個謎。

How this happended is not clear to anyone.

這件事怎樣發生的,誰也不清楚。

Where I spend my summer is no business of yours.

我在哪里過暑假不關你的事。

5. 關系代詞what引導

What we need is money. 我們需要的是錢。

What’s done is done. 事已成定局。

What make the river more beautiful are the lotus plants growing in the water. 為河水增色的是水里的荷花。

What struck me was that they have all suffered a lot. 給我很深印象的是他們都受過很多苦。

注意:

1. 主語從句一般用it作形式主語,放在句首,而將主語從句放到句末。如:

(1)It is possible that he has stolen the car.

很可能他偷了小車。

(2)Isn’t it strange that he should not have passed the test?

他測試沒有通過,難道不奇怪嗎?

2. that引導主語從句放在句首時,that不可省,但在句末口語中可省。如:

That he was ill yesterday is known now.

大家都已知道他昨天生了病。

3. 連接代詞引導主語從句只能放在句首。如;

(1)Who has broken the glass is unknown. 誰打破了玻璃現在還不知道。

(2)What he wants is all here. 他所要的東西都在這里。

4. 主語從句中主句的謂語動詞一般用第三人稱單數形式,但what引導主語從句的主句謂語動詞的形式須根據句子的意思來判斷。如

(1)How he worked it out is still a secret. 他是如何把它做出來的還是一個秘密

(2)What they makes in this factory are TV sets. 他們在工廠里所做的東西就是電視機。

02 賓語從句

用來充作賓語的句子叫做賓語從句。如:

He asked what you were doing last night. 他問你昨天夜晚在干什么。

I didn’t know that he was wounded in the accident. 我原來不知道他在那事故中受了傷。

Can you explain why he didn’t come to the party last Sunday? 你能解釋上周星期日他為什么沒有來參加聚會嗎?

賓語從句通常由連詞thatwhether (if)、連接代詞或連接副詞以及關系代詞型what引導:

1. that引導

We believe that he is honest. 我們相信他是誠實的。

The doctor insists that I give up smoking醫生堅持要我戒煙。

I suggest that we should go tomorrow. 我建議我們明天走。

2. whether / if引導

I don’t know whether he’ll arrive in time. 我不知道他是否能及時到。

I didn’t know whether they liked the place. 我不知道他們是否喜歡這個地方。

I’ll see whether I can induce him to accept it. 我要看看我是否能勸他接受。

3. 連接代詞引導

I don’t know who [whom] you mean. 我不知道你指誰。

Please tell me which you like. 告訴我你喜歡哪一個。

I’ll do whatever I can do. 我將做我所能做的事。

4. 連接副詞引導

He asked why he had to go alone. 他問他為什么必須一個人去。

You don’t know when you are lucky. 你身在福中不知福。

I asked how he was getting on. 我問他情況怎樣。

He knows where they live. 他知道他們住哪里。

注意:

1. that 在口語中常被省略,但在正式的文體中,不能省;并且它一般不能引導介詞的賓語從句,但可引導except, but, in 等少數介詞的賓語從句。如:

I didn’t know (that) he was Li Lei. 我不知道他就是李蕾。

I will do anything I can to help you except that I’m ill.

只要我身體舒服,我愿做任何事情來幫助你。

2. 賓語從句之后帶有補足語成分時,一般須用it作形式賓語,把賓語從句放到句末,此時的that不能省。如:

The boy has made it clear that they can’t play with his toys.

那個男孩已清楚的表明他們不能玩弄他的玩具。

3. 動詞advise, ask, demand, desire, insist(堅決主張), order, propose, request, suggest(建議)等代的賓語從句須用虛擬語氣,即:(should) do的形式。

He asked that we (should) get there before nine o’clock. 他要求我們在九點鐘之前趕到那兒。

The teacher advised us that we (should) not waste our time. 老師勸告我們不要浪費時間了。

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